Languages, or Conlangs as they are sometimes known, are basically
languages that have been invented or developed by one or more people
for a variety of reasons.
the most well known language of this kind is Esperanto.
It was first published in 1887 by a Pole named L.L. Zamenhof, and
was always intended to be an 'Auxiliary Language', i.e. a language
that could be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds for
mutual communication. Although Esperanto has probably remained the
most popular auxiliary language, there have been others, both before
and after, which have or have had a large following.
invented in 1879 by J.M. Schleyer, was one of the first of such
languages to meet with any success, and although it was soon to be
eclipsed by the much simpler Esperanto, it still has some followers today.
twentieth century saw the introduction of many more auxiliary
languages such as Ido
(an offshoot of Esperanto), Novial,
and Interlingua, to name
but a few.
constructed languages have been devised specifically for fictional
characters or peoples, such as the Elvish
languages in the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, or Klingon,
spoken by the alien race of the same name in the Star Trek films.
further category is that of languages which have been created to
follow a specific theory or philosophy. Two such examples are Lojban,
based on theories of logic and Láadan,
created from a feminist perspective.
there is the category of 'Personal Languages', created for many
reasons, and here is where languages such as Xara belong.
For examples of various constructed languages, as well as some natural languages, click here to see a selection of translations of a sample sentence.
is a wealth of information on Constructed Languages on the Internet,
so please do have a look at some of the sites I've selected on the Links page.